News Pouch: 13 November 2019

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Pandemic Threats and Health Emergencies

News Pouch: 13 November 2019

Welcome to this issue of the newsletter where we highlight latest research and policy news and literature on health emergencies preparedness and response, tagged by thematic area.

Please send your feedback, articles and reports, or questions you would like to share to
Dr. Chadia Wannous via email  cwannous@yahoo.com  

Wishing you useful reading!
Chadia
=============
Topics: 

  • Spotlight: Ebola Outbreak Situation
  • Updates and News on Outbreaks
    • Priority Infectious Diseases
      • Influenza
      •  VBD, and more
  • One Health
    • Biodiversity and ecosystem
    • Food Security and Safety
    • AMR
    • Health in Emergencies and Disasters
    • Health and Climate Change
    • Urban Health
    • Migration Health
    • Global Health
    • Contact us

     

    Ebola Outbreak Situation

    WHO External Situation Report 67: 12 November 2019
    Over the last three months, there has been a steady decrease in confirmed cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the peak of the epidemic in the last week of April 2019, 120 cases were reported. In the week of 4 to 10 November 2019 only 12 cases were reported. Teams are building on this progress by enhancing efforts to thoroughly investigate all new cases and improving contact tracing in order to break the remaining transmission chains. In the 21 days from 21 October to 10 November 2019, 15 health areas and five health zones have reported cases. During this period, a total of 42 confirmed cases were reported, with Mabalako (38%; n=16 cases), Mandima (36%; n=15 cases), and Beni (14%; n=6 cases) as the principal hot spots.As of 10 November 2019, a total of 3287 EVD cases were reported, including 3169 confirmed and 118 probable cases, of which 2193 cases died (overall case fatality ratio 67%). Of the total confirmed and probable cases, 56% (1854) were female, 28% (929) were children aged less than 18 years, and 5% (163) were healthcare workers.
    click here to download the complete situation report (PDF).
     
    European regulators consider 2nd Ebola vaccine
    With 1 new case today, the outbreak total climbs to 3,286, and recent cases reflect movement of infected people.
    More »

    WHO OKs Merck Ebola vaccine, paving way for stockpile
    Prequalification comes a day after European officials granted full approval.
    More »

    Ebola vaccine approved in Europe in landmark moment in fight against a deadly disease
    https://www.statnews.com/2019/11/11/ebola-vaccine-approved-in-europe-in-landmark-moment-in-fight-against-a-deadly-disease/
     
    Anti-Ebola radio in DRC closes down after killing
    A local radio station that has been involved in the fight against Ebola in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo said on Monday it was closing down after one of its broadcasters was murdered.
    https://www.news24.com/Africa/News/anti-ebola-radio-in-drc-closes-down-after-killing-20191111
     
    USAID Announces Nearly $56 Million in Additional Humanitarian Assistance to Contain Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 
    The United States, through the US Agency for International Development, is providing nearly $56 million in additional humanitarian assistance to help end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the second-largest outbreak of the disease on record. This brings the total USAID funding for the efforts to respond to Ebola to more than $266 million since the beginning of the outbreak in August 2018. This funding also includes support for regional preparedness activities in the DRC and neighboring countries and is in addition to contributions from other US Federal Departments and Agencies and the US private sector.
    https://www.usaid.gov/news-information/press-releases/nov-8-2019-usaid-announces-nearly-56-million-additional-humanitarian-assistance-ebola
     
    KSU-Developed Model Accurately Predicted Ebola Spread into Uganda. 
    Researchers from Kansas State University say that a new risk assessment model for Ebola transmission accurately predicted the disease’s spread into the Republic of Uganda, opening the possibility of a better means of predicting disease spread. The team made a model that combines people’s regular contacts — family and co-workers, for example — with more temporary and incidental contacts, such as those met while traveling. It acts as a risk assessment tool to give experts an idea of how best to prepare and distribute resources
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191105133034.htm
     
    Ebola Survivor Study Expanded to Include New Technologies. 
    In 2016, FDA awarded a contract to Stanford University to help the global scientific community better understand the course of Ebola virus infection—an important factor in finding new treatments. In 2017, research was expanded to include Zika virus infection. In September 2019, the project was again expanded, to apply a new method to the study of Ebola and Zika tissue samples. The Stanford laboratory will use multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) to identify viral reservoirs—cells or anatomical sites where viruses accumulate and persist—for both Ebola and Zika infection, ultimately facilitating the deployment of novel, effective analytical technologies into federal laboratory space
    https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/mcm-regulatory-science/survivor-studies-better-understanding-ebolas-after-effects-help-find-new-treatments
     
    Considerations for use of Ebola vaccine during an emergency response
    Vaccination against Ebola virus disease is a tool that may limit disease transmission and deaths in future outbreaks, integrated within traditional Ebola outbreak prevention and control measures.
    https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Considerations-for-use-of-Ebola-vaccine-during-an-Walldorf-Cloessner/344d482b7713cf101cc0ee5726b3d0051856b93c
     
    Progress towards a vaccine against Ebola to meet emergency medical countermeasure needs
    The Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa proved to be the largest in the history of filovirus outbreaks, causing the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of international concern in August of 2014.
     
    Data management of clinical trials during an outbreak of Ebola virus disease
    Clinical trial data management (DM) conducted during outbreaks like that of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, 2014–2016, has to adapt to specific, unique circumstances.
     
     

    Priority Diseases

    WHO supports Nigeria to become first African country to adopt new epidemic intelligence tool
    In the short time it has existed, Nigeria’s public health institute, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), has reported, averted and controlled a myriad of disease outbreaks. A key factor in preventing either the occurrence or the spread of these outbreaks has been their early detection.
    https://www.afro.who.int/news/who-supports-nigeria-become-first-african-country-adopt-new-epidemic-intelligence-tool
     
    Experts Meet in Africa to Advance Biosecurity in the Region. 
    The event was designed to help the Africa CDC Central Africa Regional Collaborating Centre and its member countries identify and fill biosecurity and biosafety gaps. Participants included human health, animal health, and defense and security staff from the nine-member nations. They developed concrete actions to address biosecurity and biosafety challenges common among Central African countries. 
    https://homelandprepnews.com/stories/39432-experts-meet-in-africa-to-advance-biosecurity-in-the-region/
     
    Researchers Find Evidence of Bat-Borne Filovirus Transmission to Humans in India. 
    Bat hunters in Nagaland, India, were found to have likely been exposed to filoviruses, according to a study from Duke-NUS Medical School researchers
    https://homelandprepnews.com/stories/39253-researchers-find-evidence-of-bat-borne-filovirus-transmission-to-humans-in-india/
     
    FUNDING
    Global Health Security Partner Enhancement : Expanding Efforts to Improve Surveillance and Laboratory Data Interoperability. 
    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is working to help Ministries of Health meet key International Health Regulations (2005) requirements through implementation of the GHSA. CDC seeks to work with partner countries and other USG agencies in a collaborative effort to achieve specific goals in three focus areas: 1) Preventing avoidable epidemics 2) Detecting threats early 3) Responding rapidly and effectively. 
    https://www.developmentaid.org/#!/grants/view/503289/global-health-security-partner-enhancement-expanding-efforts-to-improve-surveillance-and-laboratory
     
    ===============
     
    Influenza
     
    WHO biweekly global influenza update www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/updates/latest_update_GIP_surveillance/
     
    The latest FluNet summary of lab-confirmed data from GISRS
     www.who.int/influenza/gisrs_laboratory/updates/summaryreport

    Five simple steps to protect against flu
    https://medium.com/@who/five-simple-steps-to-protect-against-flu-30465fa69da2
     
    Study adds more evidence that maternal flu vaccination protects babies
    A study over two influenza seasons in England added more evidence that immunizing pregnant women helps reduce lab-confirmed flu and related hospitalizations in babies younger than 6 months old. 
    J Infect Dis abstract

    Flu vaccination in kids not tied to season severity, vaccine effectiveness
    A study that looked at flu season severity, vaccine effectiveness, and flu vaccination rates in children found no association between vaccination rates and severity of the current or prior season. A team based at Columbia University reported their findings today in JAMA Pediatrics
    Nov 11 JAMA Pediatr abstract
     
    ‘Forgotten’ pneumonia epidemic kills more children than any other disease
    Pneumonia, an entirely preventable disease, kills more children than any other illness in the world, one child every 39 seconds. But although that statistic is well known, funding to improve survival rates continues to come up short, the UN and partners warned on Tuesday, World Pneumonia Day. 
    https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/11/1051161
     
    ==================
     
    Vector-Borne Diseases (VBD)

    Estimating malaria burden among pregnant women using data from antenatal care centres in Tanzania: a population-based study
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(19)30405-X/fulltext
     
    How a refugee camp in Rwanda slashed malaria cases by 80 per cent.
    The Telegraph 
     
    A Takeda vaccine for dengue appears effective, but the story is nuanced
    In the wake of controversy over a Sanofi (SNY) dengue vaccine, Takeda (TAK) Pharmaceuticals is betting its own effort will meet a largely unmet medical need and, in the process, become a best-selling product. But preliminary results released on Wednesday suggest the company has more work to do to ensure its vaccine does not encounter the same problems that have hobbled its rival.
    https://www.statnews.com/pharmalot/2019/11/06/takeda-dengue-vaccine-sanofi/
     
    An open challenge to advance probabilistic forecasting for dengue epidemics
    Forecasts routinely provide critical information for dangerous weather events but not yet for epidemics. Researchers develop computational models that can be used for infectious disease forecasting, but forecasts have not been broadly compared or tested. We collaboratively compared forecasts from 16 teams for 8 y of dengue epidemics in Peru and Puerto Rico. The comparison highlighted components that forecasts did well (e.g., situational awareness late in the season) and those that need more work (e.g., early season forecasts).
    https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/11/05/1909865116
     
    ============
    ASF
     
    ASF Asia Update for 7 November from FAO/EMPRES – Animal Health.
    * The Republic of Korea reported additional 4 cases only in wild pigs.
    * Lao People’s Democratic Republic confirmed an ASF outbreak in the last Sainyabuli Province.
    * The Philippines posted 24 outbreaks occurred between 19 August and 8 October involving more than 140 villages all in Luzon Island (the locations shown on the map) on WAHIS.
    http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/empres/ASF/Situation_update.html            
    ==============
    Cholera

    Cholera tops infectious diseases in WHO African member states in 2018
    A new survey of infectious disease outbreaks in WHO African member states in 2018 shows that cholera was the most commonly reported disease outbreak, accounting for 20.8% of outbreak events. The study appears today in Epidemiology & Infection.
    Nov 11 Epidemiol Infect study
     
    =================
    Polio
     
    Re-emergence of P2 polio in Pakistan
    It is blamed on terrible mismanagement of the polio program in the country, where government officials have allegedly covered up the new cases and carried out a secret immunization campaign to contain the disease.
    [Hannah Ellis-Petersen, The Guardian]
     
    The public health crisis of underimmunisation: a global plan of action
    Vaccination is one of public health's greatest achievements, responsible for saving billions of lives. Yet, 20% of children worldwide are not fully protected, leading to 1·5 million child deaths annually from vaccine-preventable diseases.
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(19)30558-4/fulltext
     
    Pakistan accused of cover-up over fresh polio outbreak
    Officials in Pakistan have been accused of covering up an outbreak of the most dangerous strain of polio and planning a covert vaccination programme to contain the disease.
    https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/nov/07/pakistan-accused-of-cover-up-over-fresh-polio-outbreak
     
    The road to polio eradication-experts comment
    https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2019/road-polio-eradication-expert-comment
     
    ================
     
    HIV

    A new plan for extended paediatric HIV testing is needed in Africa
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(19)30408-5/fulltext
     
    Scientists discover first new HIV strain in nearly two decades
    For the first time in 19 years, a team of scientists has detected a new strain of HIV. The strain is a part of the Group M version of HIV-1, the same family of virus subtypes to blame for the global HIV pandemic, according to Abbott Laboratories, which conducted the research along with the University of Missouri, Kansas City. The findings were published Wednesday in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
    https://www.webmd.com/hiv-aids/news/20191107/new-strain-of-hiv-discovered
     
    FDA Authorizes Marketing of First Next-Generation Sequencing Test for Detecting HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations. 
    The US Food and Drug Administration authorized marketing of a test to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Type-1 drug resistance mutations using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The Sentosa SQ HIV Genotyping Assay is the first HIV drug resistance assay that uses NGS technology that the FDA has authorized for marketing in the US
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-authorizes-marketing-first-next-generation-sequencing-test-detecting-hiv-1-drug-resistance
     
    ============
    TB

    Global Fund replenishment brings us one step closer to ending tuberculosis
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(19)30424-3/fulltext

    ‘Game-changing’ TB vaccine shows promise in trials
    An experimental tuberculosis vaccine could save millions of lives but more studies are needed, researchers say.
    https://www.scidev.net/global/tb/news/game-changing-tb-vaccine-shows-promise-in-trials-1.html
     

    One Health  

    ONE HEALTH FOR AFRICA: Germany’s BMZ initiates a new ‘One Health Research, Education and Outreach Centre for Africa’
    https://www.ilri.org/news/one-health-africa-germany%E2%80%99s-bmz-initiates-new-%E2%80%98one-health-research-education-and-outreach
     
    Disease slashing global meat output, cereals boom, bananas under watch: FAO
    A rapid spread of African Swine Fever (ASF) is wiping out pig herds in China, the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said on Thursday, and the killer disease has led to a drop in world meat production for the first time in more than 20 years, with other global staples also facing new threats
    https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/11/1050851
     
    A crucial blind spot in veterinary medicine. 
    The Atlantic
     
    ===================
     
    Biodiversity and Ecosystem
     
    New UN forestry project bids to help countries meet climate change commitments
    More than two dozen countries across Asia, Africa and Latin America are set to benefit from a UN project to help tackle climate change through better forestry management.
    https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/11/1051041
     
    Biodiversity Buzz
    Richness and abundance of organisms like pollinators are key drivers of services that allow biodiversity to flourish, like pollination and pest control. 
    (Read Article)
     
    Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater: Hazards and Policy Responses,
    A new OECD report warns of the risks from increased pharmaceutical residues in the environment.
     
    Rampaging weeds contribute to US fires
    The presence of non-native grasses sharply increases fire risk in a variety of ecosystems across the continental United States, from deciduous forest in the east to the deserts of the southwest.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03398-3
     
    Sustainable Use of Wild Species is Key to Achieve Sustainable Development
    The IPBES Sustainable Use assessment will gauge status and trends in the use of wild species and their consequences for nature and nature’s contributions to people. 
    Read
     
    ================
    Food Safety and Security
     
    A diet that’s good for you is also good for the planet—and vice versa
     Eating a healthy diet pays off for the environment, too, researchers discover in a new analysis.
    http://www.anthropocenemagazine.org/2019/11/a-healthy-diet-protects-the-environment-not-just-your-health 
     
    Edible, Yet Unattainable
    Research by Kalle Hirvonen, Derek Headey, and colleagues shows that the universal diet recommended by the EAT-Lancet Commission would cost USD $2.84 per day, exceeding the household per capita income of 1.58 billion people. The cost of fruits and vegetable make up the largest share (31%) of the total cost of the recommended diet. 
    (Read Article) (Read Press Release) (View Full Infographic)
     
    Turning Down the Heat
    Climate change is projected to reduce yields and production in Asia and the Pacific, but comprehensive investments in agricultural R&D, irrigation and water use, and rural infrastructure can effectively end hunger in the region by 2030, according to a report by Mark Rosegrant, Nicostrato Perez, Rowena Valmonte-Santos, and colleagues.
    (Read Article)
     
    Buried Treasure
    Adopting climate-smart agriculture on one-fourth of Ethiopia's land under maize and wheat cultivation could increase annual GDP by $50 million, more effective than doubling fertilizer use on the same area. 
    (Read Article)
     
    Drowning in Poverty
    African households affected by flood shocks experience a 35% drop in food consumption and 17 percentage point increase in extreme poverty over 10 years, as Carlo Azzarri and Sara Signorelli show in their continent-wide analysis of climate and poverty. 
    (Read Blog)
     
    Event
    Transforming Africa’s Food System with Digital Technologies
    Tuesday, November 26, 2019 
    9:30 am to 11:00 am (EST)
    IFPRI  | 1201 Eye St. NW  | 12th Floor
    Washington, D.C. 20005
    Register
    Live webcast and post-event viewing available here
     
    =============
     
    AMR
     
    WHO World Antibiotic Awareness Week 18-24 November 2019
    This year’s public messaging focuses on prevention of infections with basic interventions that are applicable in all settings: safe sex, hand washing and vaccination.
    •    Download posters and other materials here:
    https://who.canto.global/v/campaigns/s/PI9KE?viewIndex=0. Stay tuned as WHO HQ continues to roll out materials in the lead up to WAAW19.
    •    The 2019 Global Campaign Map is now live and the Tripartite (WHO/FAO/OIE) are looking forward to seeing your events, meetings and media campaigns posted here http://apps.who.int/world-antibiotic-awareness-week/activities/en
     
    •    Help launch WHO’s AMR app. To mark WAAW 2019 the WHO Headquarters is developing the first ever WHO augmented reality app on AMR. WHO Headquarters is currently looking for partners in to help launch this educational app on AMR during World Antibiotic Awareness Week 2019.
    Read the concept note (below) and help spread global awareness and increase education on AMR.https://www.dropbox.com/s/t0flavs801v6b5v/WHO_HQ_AMR_Augmented%20Reality%20App%20Concept%20note.pdf?dl=0
     
    Report of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting in collaboration with OIE on Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance: Role of the Environment, Crops and Biocides.
    http://www.fao.org/3/ca6724en/ca6724en.pdf
     
    Prudent and efficient use of antimicrobials in pigs and poultry. FAO Animal Production and Health Manual No. 23. Rome. FAO.
    The manual is intended to assist pharmacists, veterinarians, other animal health workers, farm owners and their staff in using antibiotics in a prudent and medically efficient way without loss in productivity. It is especially targeted to farmers with commercialized medium- or large-scale production, veterinarians and other animal health personnel in non-EU Eastern European and Balkan countries, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, who are dealing with pigs and poultry. However, in many cases the principles and practices described here are universally useful and may be applied elsewhere.
    http://www.fao.org/3/ca6729en/CA6729EN.pdf
     
    Events and training
    On Nov 20, the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention will host a public Twitter chat on AMR and antibiotic stewardship across Africa.
    http://africacdc.org/press-centre/news/107-working-together-to-tackle-antimicrobial-resistance-in-africa
     
    FREE online course.
    SLU and Future Learn is repeating the successful and free on-line course “Effective Livestock Production with Low use of Antibiotics”
    https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/effective-livestock-production
     
    FREE: MOOC on Health Systems Strengthening: Next iteration starts 25 November
    Specially designed for busy professionals, participants will explore the complexity of health systems and apply systems thinking to health systems strengthening (HSS). Participants will be equipped with the knowledge and skills to develop HSS interventions across areas such as health policy, health financing, human resources, supply chain management, quality of care and private sector engagement. The course will run on a rolling basis several times per year. Participants will receive a free certificate of completion from the University of Melbourne and UNICEF upon completion of the course. https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/health-systems-strengthening
     
    WASH action briefs from WHO and UNICEF
    Eight Practical Steps to achieve WASH and quality care
    https://www.washinhcf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/WASHinHCFPracticalSteps2019.pdf
     
    Commitments for Change: What YOU can do to make difference 
    https://www.washinhcf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/CommittmentsWASHinHCF.pdf
     
    CIDRAP have launched an Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance page
    It holds a collection of tools and databases for community, inpatient, animal, environmental, and genomic AMR surveillance, as well as resources and perspective for implementation of surveillance strategies and infrastructure.http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/asp/surveillance

    Drug resistance threatens Canada's health, economy, report says
    "AMR is a looming public health threat and potential economic disaster."
    More »

    New SDG Indicators Agreed for Antimicrobial Resistance, Dispute Resolution, GHG Emissions
    The UN’s group of experts on SDG indicators has recommended 32 changes to the global indicator set. The 2020 Comprehensive Review of the indicator framework is called for in a 2017 resolution of the UN General Assembly. [Meeting Documents
    Read
     
    EU call for contribution on AMR in vet medicine
    The EU Joint Action on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections (EU-JAMRAI) is calling for potential collaborators to aid in the design of the European AMR Surveillance network in Veterinary medicine (EARS-Vet), with a request that anyone interested contact EU-JAMRAI before Dec 15.
    https://eu-jamrai.eu/help-build-ears-vet/
     

    UnMasked: We All Breathe
    Thurs 14 Nov
    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is responsible for 1/3 of all antimicrobial resistance-associated deaths globally. During World Antibiotic Awareness Week, join us for a screening of the powerful documentary 'UnMasked: We all Breathe' which follows the journey of three South African doctors who contracted the disease at work.  
    Read more →

    Stewardship / Resistance Scan for Nov 12, 2019

    • Pre-op antibiotic overuse
    • Highly lethal Klebsiella strain
    • FDA antimicrobial guidance

    More »

    Stewardship / Resistance Scan for Nov 08, 2019

    • Inappropriate hospital antibiotics for kids
    • Funding for gonorrhea drug candidate
    • Probiotic-associated bloodstream infections

    More »

    Stewardship / Resistance Scan for Nov 11, 2019

    • C diff in VA hospitals
    • UK antibiotic development
    • ESBL carriage in dogs

    More »
     

    Emergencies and Disasters
     

    Infectious disease outbreaks in the African region: overview of events reported to the World Health Organization in 2018
    The WHO African region is characterised by the largest infectious disease burden in the world. We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis using records of all infectious disease outbreaks formally reported to the WHO in 2018 by Member States of the African region.
    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/infectious-disease-outbreaks-in-the-african-region-overview-of-events-reported-to-the-world-health-organization-in-2018
     
    WHO AFRO - Outbreaks and Emergencies Bulletin - Week 45/2019
    The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 66 events in the region. This week's edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:

    • Measles in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    • Humanitarian crisis in South Sudan
    • Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Humanitarian crisis in Burkina Faso.

    https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/329898/OEW45-0410112019.pdf
     
    Pandemic policy can learn from arms control
    Like the parties to the bioweapons convention, the WHO member states should convene regular ‘review conferences’ to discuss developments and their implications for the [International Health Regulations]. 
    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03452-0

    A new twenty-first century science for effective epidemic response
    With rapidly changing ecology, urbanization, climate change, increased travel and fragile public health systems, epidemics will become more frequent, more complex and harder to prevent and contain. Here we argue that our concept of epidemics must evolve from crisis response during discrete outbreaks to an integrated cycle of preparation, response and recovery.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1717-y
     
    SOUTH SUDAN: Response to Floods Affecting 900,000 People Scales Up
    Read more

    Indonesian forest fires raise concerns about health
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)32721-7/fulltext

    The Last Stand Evacuating a Hospital in the Middle of a Wildfire
    https://files.asprtracie.hhs.gov/documents/aspr-tracie-the-last-stand-evacuating-a-hospital-in-the-middle-of-a-wildfire.pdf

    'Leave now': Australians urged to evacuate as 'catastrophic' fires loom
    Authorities declared a state of emergency across a broad swath of Australia’s east coast and asked residents to evacuate as bush fires continued to rage
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-australia-bushfires/leave-now-australians-urged-to-evacuate-as-catastrophic-fires-loom-idUSKBN1XK0R0
     
    Mitigating Cholera in the Aftermath of Cyclone Idai  
    Catastrophic damage and floods followed the deadliest cyclone on record for the Southern Hemisphere. In the aftermath of Cyclone Idai, a cholera outbreak was detected. The global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine was rapidly deployed to counter this fast-growing epidemic.
    http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0285

    Waves in St Mark's Square as Venice flooded by highest tide in 50 years
    High waters peaked at 1.87 metres as the flood alarm sounded across the Italian city of canals
    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/nov/13/waves-in-st-marks-square-as-venice-flooded-highest-tide-in-50-years
     
    Impact of repeat flooding on mental health and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional analysis of the English National Study of Flooding and Health
    This paper assesses the association between flooding/repeat flooding and: psychological morbidity (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at 6 months post-flooding.  A cross-sectional analysis of data from the English National Study of Flooding and Health is used. Questionnaires were sent to 2500 residential addresses at 6 months post-flooding; 590 people responded.
    https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/11/e031562
     
    How communities can build psychological resilience to disaster
    https://www.citylab.com/environment/2019/11/mental-health-support-natural-disaster-trauma-ptsd-anxiety/601522/

    The association between heat exposure and hospitalization for undernutrition in Brazil during 2000−2015: A nationwide case-crossover study
    With daily hospitalization data covering nearly 80% of the Brazilian population during 2000−2015, we used a time-stratified case-crossover design to quantify the association between heat exposure and hospitalization for undernutrition. We also estimated the heat-related hospitalization burden. There was a 2.5% increase in undernutrition hospitalizations following every 1°C increase in daily mean temperature during the hot season. The young (0–19 years) and elderly people (≥80 years) with undernutrition were more vulnerable to heat exposure than other age groups. Heat exposure was responsible for 15.6% of the undernutrition hospitalizations during the study period, corresponding to 37,129 cases. The attributable fraction increased from 14.1% in 2000 to 17.5% in 2015, paralleling a 1.1°C increase in average temperature.
    https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1002950
     
    Real time extended range prediction of heat waves over India
    This study aims at the real-time monitoring and prediction of heat waves using a multi-model dynamical ensemble prediction system developed at Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, India. For this, a criterion has been proposed based on the observed daily gridded maximum temperature (Tmax) datasets, which can be used for real-time prediction as well.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-45430-6

    Women and children living in areas of armed conflict in Africa: a geospatial analysis of mortality and orphanhood
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(19)30407-3/fulltext
     
    Humanitarian Transparency: Information-sharing during protracted emergencies
    https://reliefweb.int/blogpost/humanitarian-transparency-information-sharing-during-protracted-emergencies

    ADB helps relocate Tonga's Ha'apai hospital as part of project to manage climate risks
    https://www.adb.org/news/adb-helps-relocate-tongas-haapai-hospital-part-project-manage-climate-risks

    Climate Change

    The climate crisis explained in 10 charts
    From the rise and rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to possible solutions
    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/sep/20/the-climate-crisis-explained-in-10-charts
    A Trump administration plan would make it harder for the E.P.A. to enact clean air and water rules by limiting the scientific research it can use.
    A new draft of an Environmental Protection Agency proposal would require that scientists disclose all of their raw data, including confidential medical records, before the agency could consider an academic study’s conclusions.
    Read More »

    The Extraordinary Climate Agreement on International Aviation: An Airline Industry Perspective
    The climate agreement on international aviation is unique, in that no other sector has a policy that places an absolute global cap on net CO2 emissions. This policy brief provides an overview of how the scheme was designed, its characteristics, and the role played by the International Air Transport Association.
    https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/extraordinary-climate-agreement-international-aviation-airline-industry-perspective

    20,000 scientists give dire warning about the future in 'letter to humanity' – and the world is listening
    https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/letter-to-humanity-scientists-warning-climate-change-global-warming-experts-a8243606.html
     
    Climate change and extreme rainfall
    The total amount of precipitation from extreme weather events will nearly double for every 1 ˚C of global warming, because the air has higher concentrations of water vapour in a warmer atmosphere.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03429-z
     
    New report offers details on how to maximize efforts to achieve both climate action and the Sustainable Development Goals
    https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?page=view&nr=1632&type=230&menu=2059
     

    Urban Health

    Disentangling the impacts of human and environmental change on catchment response during Hurricane Harvey
    This study quantifies how urbanization and climatological trends influenced flooding in the greater Houston region during Hurricane Harvey. The region – characterized by extreme precipitation events, low topographic relief, and clay-dominated soils – is naturally flood prone, but it is also one of the fastest growing urban areas in the United States.
    https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ab5234
     

    Migration Health

    60,000 young refugees and migrants who arrived in Italy alone lack support
    United Nations agencies on Friday highlighted the dire needs of thousands of unaccompanied and separated children who have arrived in Italy as refugees, lacking the proper support to transition through to adulthood.
    https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/11/1050951
    Read Statment online here
    Read the Report in English here
    Read the Report in Italian here
     
    More than 1600 people were cleared out of two makeshift camps near Porte de la Chapelle in Paris
    They were taken to processing centers on Thursday, as part of President Emmanuel Macron's tougher stance on immigration.
    [AFP in The Telegraph]
     
    Joint Press Release by ILO, OECD, IOM and UNICEF
    New information on child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains is revealed in a report compiled by the ILO, OECD, IOM and UNICEF – members of the Alliance 8.7 partnership on child labour, forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking.
    Report in English:  
    Ending child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains
     
    Public attitudes towards migrants and refugees
    New country briefs review current migration patterns and policies in the UK and Germany, and examine how public perceptions match up with reality.
    https://www.odi.org/publications/11474-public-narratives-and-attitudes-towards-refugees-and-other-migrants-uk-country-profile
    https://www.odi.org/publications/11473-public-narratives-and-attitudes-towards-refugees-and-other-migrants-germany-country-profile

    Global Health

    Health spending on avg. in OECD countries was 8.8% in 2018
    But new estimates point to it reaching 10.2% of GDP by 2030 across OECD countries.
    https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org///sites/4dd50c09-en/1/2/7/2/index.html

    Immunization: vital progress, unfinished agenda
    Vaccination against infectious diseases has changed the future of the human species, saving millions of lives every year, both children and adults, and providing major benefits to society as a whole. Here we show, however, that national and sub-national coverage of vaccination varies greatly and major unmet needs persist.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1656-7
     
    Novel vaccine technologies for the 21st century
    Novel approaches to vaccine development include structure-based immunogen design, gene-based vaccine platforms and formulation of recombinant antigens with potent adjuvants.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-019-0243-3

    Global access to quality-assured medical products: the Oxford Statement and call to action
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(19)30426-7/fulltext

    Gender data gaps represent missed opportunities in WASH
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(19)30449-8/fulltext

    Increasing gender diversity in the STEM research workforce
    https://science.sciencemag.org/content/366/6466/692
     
    WHO sticks to 2020 governance plan for human-genome editing (Nature)
    The turmoil around plans from Russia for gene editing of human embryos underscores the importance and urgency of the global governance framework now being developed by the World Health Organization’s expert advisory committee on human genome editing.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03474-8
     

     

     

    Knowledge Sharing

    Thank you for reading. If you have thoughts, feedback, story ideas, or questions you would like to share or interested in partnering with us on a special event coverage, please send a note to Chadia Wannous via email cwannous@yahoo.com  

     

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